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Threat Group Cards: A Threat Actor Encyclopedia

Permanent link Tool: RomeoCharlie

TypeBackdoor, Info stealer, Tunneling
Description(Novetta) With observed compile dates going back to February 5, 2014, RomeoCharlie is one of the oldest R-C1-based RATs (see Section 2) in the Lazarus Group’s collection. A server-mode RAT, RomeoCharlie uses DNSCALC-style encoding for network communication and RSA encryption for client authentication. There are two observed variants, RomeoCharlie-One and RomeoCharlie-Two. The differences between the two are cosmetic in nature.

With the configuration of the RomeoCharlie variants loaded into memory, the differences between RomeoCharlie-One and RomeoCharlie-Two cease (save for one exception that will be explained). RomeoCharlie is a server-mode RAT and, as such, must establish a listening port. Before a listening port is established at the Winsock level, RomeoCharlie first opens a hole in the Windows Firewall to allow incoming connections on the desired listening port (as specified in the configuration). The task of opening a firewall port consists of constructing and then issuing the command line.

Last change to this tool card: 19 April 2020

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All groups using tool RomeoCharlie


APT groups

 Lazarus Group, Hidden Cobra, Labyrinth ChollimaNorth Korea2007-Spring 2021X

1 group listed (1 APT, 0 other, 0 unknown)

Thailand Computer Emergency Response Team (ThaiCERT)
Electronic Transactions Development Agency

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